Various models

Constitutions with a high degree of separation of powers are found worldwide. The UK system is distinguished by a particular entwining of powers. In Italy the powers are completely separated, even if Council of Ministers need the vote of confidence from both chambers of Parliament, that's however formed by a wide number of members (almost 1,000). A number of Latin American countries have electoral branches of government. Countries with little separation of power include New Zealand and Canada. Canada makes limited use of separation of powers in practice, although in theory it distinguishes between branches of government. New Zealand also subscribes to the principle of 'Separation of Powers' through a series of constitutional safeguards. The Executive requires regular approval from the Legislature to carry out decisions. The Mixed Members Proportionate framework also caters for a coalition of parties to form government where a majority from a single party does not exist. The Judiciary is also free of government interference. If a series of judicial decisions result in an interpretation of the law which the Executive considers does not reflect the intention of the policy, the Executive can change the legislation. However, they can not direct or request a judicial officer to revise or reconsider a decision. These decisions are final. Should there be a dispute between the Executive and Judiciary, the Executive has no authority to direct the Judiciary, or its individual members. Complete separation-of-powers systems are almost always presidential, although theoretically this need not be the case. There are a few historical exceptions, such as the Directoire system of revolutionary France. Switzer and offers an example of non-Presidential separation of powers today: It is run by a seven-member executive branch, the Federal Council. However, some might argue that Switzerland does not have a strong separation of powers system, as the Federal Council is appointed by parliament (but not dependent on parliament), and the judiciary has no power of review. A president is a leader of an organization, company, club, trade union, university, country, a division or part of any of these, or, more generally, anything else. Etymologically, a president is one who presides, (from Latin prae- "before" + sedere "to sit"; giving the term praeses). Originally, the term referred to the presiding officer of a ceremony or meeting (i.e., chairman), but today it most commonly refers to an official. Among other things, "President" today is a common title for the heads of state of most republics, whether popularly elected, chosen by the legislature or by a special electoral college. The Directory (French: Directoire executif) was a body of five Directors that held executive power in France following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. The period of this regime (2 November 1795 until 10 November 1799), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) era, constitutes the second to first stage of the French Revolution. The Directory era itself is further split into two periods, the First Directory and the Second Directory, divided by the Coup of 18 Fructidor. Directoire style refers to the Neoclassical styles in the decorative arts and fashion that characterize the period. The directory system of government was also used in several French client republics and modern Switzerland; see directorial system.