Federalism in India
Part XI of the Indian constitution defines the power distribution between the federal government (the Centre) and the States in India. This part is divided between legislative and administrative powers. The legislative section is divided into three lists: Union list, States list and Concurrent list. Unlike the federal governments of the United States, Switzerland or Australia, residual powers remain with the Centre, as with the Canadian federal government. Union list Union list consists of 100 items (previously 97 items) on which the parliament has exclusive power to legislate with including: defence, armed forces, arms and ammunition, atomic energy, foreign affairs, war and peace, citizenship, extradition, railways, shipping and navigation, airways, posts and telegraphs, telephones, wireless and broadcasting, currency, foreign trade, inter-state trade and commerce, banking, insurance, control of industries, regulation and development of mines, mineral and oil resources, elections, audit of Government accounts, constitution and organisation of the Supreme Court, High Courts and union public service commission, income tax, custom duties and export duties, duties of excise, corporation tax, taxes on capital value of assets, estate duty, terminal taxes. Concurrent list Concurrent list consists of 52 items (previously 47 items). Uniformity is desirable but not essential on items in this list: Marriage and divorce, transfer of property other than agricultural land, education, contracts, bankruptcy and insolvency, trustees and trusts, civil procedure, contempt of court, adulteration of foodstuffs, drugs and poisons, economic and social planning, trade unions, labour welfare, electricity, newspapers, books and printing press, stamp duties. State list State list consists of 61 items (previously 66 items). Uniformity is desirable but not essential on items in this list: maintaining law and order, police forces, healthcare, transport, land policies, electricity in stat
, village administration, etc.The state legislature has exclusive power to make laws on these subjects. But in certain circumstances,the parliament can also make laws on subjects mentioned in the State list. Exceptions Though states have exclusive powers to legislate with regards to items on the states list, articles 249, 250, 252, and 253 state situations in which the federal government can legislate on these items. Administrative powers The Union and states have independent executive staffs fully controlled by respected governments and executive power of the states and the Centre are extended on issues they are empowered to legislate. Union control over states See also: Article 356 According to the Article 356 of the Constitution of India, states must exercise their executive power in compliance with the laws made by the Central government. Article 357 calls upon every state not to impede on the executive power of the Union within the states. Articles 352 to 360 contain provisions which empower the Centre to take over the executive of the states on issues of national security or on the breakdown of constitutional machinery. Governors are appointed by the Central government to oversee states. The president can dissolve the state assembly under the recommendation of the council of ministers by invoking Article 356 if and when states fail to comply with directives given by the Centre. Centre For Multilevel Federalism Centre For Multilevel Federalism (CMF) at New Delhi, India, is a major scholarly society established as a silver jubilee year initiative of the Institute of Social Sciences, New Delhi, India. It conducts interdisciplinary research on Indian federalism in a comparative perspective. Its faculty includes renowned economists, lawyers, journalists and public policy experts alongside political scientists and sociologists from universities and research institutes as well as from think tanks working on political institutions and processes.